(What to do before, during and after)
Traffic accidents are among the most important factors causing death and severe injuries. Traffic accidents can also have huge economic and social impacts. Factors involved in car accidents are divided into three main groups including: human factors, factors related to the vehicles and factors related to the roads.
Some of the factors involved in traffic accidents
- Lack of rules and regulations.
- Lack of drivers’ attention to the rules.
- Inadequate skills and personal errors.
- Disregarding traffic signs and warnings.
- Driving at high speed
- Lack of concentration and lack of consciousness
- Deviation to the left, disobeying priority right and lack of sufficient attention to the front.
- Driving in anger or dispute with others.
- Lack of visibility especially at night.
- Neglect of children when they are crossing the road.
- Poor design of connecting roads.
- Wet and slippery roads.
- Poor weather conditions
- Animals crossing the roads such as cows and horses.
- Defective vehicles.
- Cars not observing safety requirements.
General preventive measures (before the accident)
- Pay attention to weather forecasts.
- have emergency tools and equipment in your car including:
Spare tire, jack, tool box, etc.
Caution triangle, fire extinguishers and first aid kit.
Flashlight, spare battery and a rope with length of 5 meters.
- Don’t talk on the cell phone while driving.
- Follow the rules and respect traffic laws.
- Fasten your seat belt before moving and make sure that the people aboard have also fastened their safety belts.
- Don’t drive in anger or while disputing with others.
- Don’t use hypnotic and relaxation drugs while driving.
- In case of fatigue, drowsiness or unbalanced mental condition, don’t continue driving and rest in an appropriate place. It’s better to have 15 minutes break after every two hours driving.
- Drive at an appropriate speed.
- Drive carefully.
- Don’t talk to the driver and don’t tell jokes.
- Don’t cross the solid line in middle of the road.
- Don’t drive a car if you have health problems.
- Wear a helmet when riding a motorcycle.
- Pay attention to signs.
- Notice to advice and notes of the police responsible for roads.
- Head and hands out of windows lead to many risks. Remind the passengers.
- Avoid riding young children in front seat.
- Don’t eat and don’t drink while driving.
- Don’t neglect to clean the windows of your car.
- Don’t travel by vehicles you are not sure of their security because they are the main cause of accidents.
- Fix your car in case of technical problems.
- Use special baby seats for young children.
- Check all systems of your vehicle.
- Check the technical condition of the engine and brake.
- Check the doors and locks.
- Check the traffic lights, brake lights and the headlight.
- Check the tires. Don’t use flat tires.
- Check the horn, wiper, safety belt and mirrors.
- In case of possible damage to the vehicle, stop it at the first safe place. Using safety signs especially in the dark, take action to fix it.
- Carry people and cargo within the capacity of your vehicle and avoid picking your family members up the room behind the van or truck.
- During a trip to cold and ice areas, use icebreaker tires or take chains with you.
- Keep safety distance with your surroundings.
- Reduce your speed when you approach the entrance of urban or rural areas.
- If the brake doesn’t work, stop the car using handbrake, take your foot off the gas and use reverse gear.
- Drive always at an appropriate speed in order to be able to control and stop the car quickly in time of need.
- In the path of travel, notice the warning signs and the lines of the middle and sides of the road and use low light at night.
- When the warning signs become clear (LED ampere showing water level, oil lamps and LED dynamo), stop the car quickly, investigate the cause and fix it.
Prevention of accidents in foggy weather
- Drive slowly.
- If possible, equip your vehicle with fog lights.
- When driving in fog, use low light.
- Follow the solid lines in the middle and alongside the road.
- Use the air conditioner in the case of steam in the windshield of your car. Or make the driver’s right glass slightly downwards, so the steam disappears and doesn’t hinder your vision.
- When driving in the above conditions don’t have full confidence in back lights of the car in front as a guide or compass.
Prevention of car accidents while driving and dealing with slippery surfaces
- Drive gently and carefully on the road curves.
- Avoid sudden braking because it makes the car slide.
- Avoid sudden pressure of foot or sudden loss of pressure on the gas pedal.
- While driving on a slippery surface, avoid sudden change of gear into low gear.
- If your car slips, take your foot off the gas pedal without using the brake. Coolly rotate the steering wheel in the direction of car’s movement. So the car can be placed directly on the right path. Don’t use the heavy gear until you make the car straight.
Actions before and after the accident
- The first step in dealing with car accident includes: turning the engine off, putting stone in front of the wheels, switching in anti-tilt gear, pulling the handbrake and removing the battery.
- If after stopping the car there is any risk, keep in mind the following:
Communicate instantly with passing drivers through warning signs.
Put the stones on the road (100 meters before the accident) and make the passing drivers aware of your problem by warning signs.
During daylight, you can use colored fabrics to warn.
In case of an accident at night (if no gasoline, oil, etc. is on the road), make a fire at the beginning of the road where you put the stones.
If there is gas, petrol or diesel on the road, by pouring some dirt or sand, make the place safe.
Have the fire extinguisher ready so in case of any fire you can take the necessary action.
If the fire is in the engine, don’t open the front hood completely and try to extinguish the fire in two ways:
Sprinkle the contents of the extinguisher capsule under the engine.
Open the hood just for the capsule hose to enter.
- To communicate with road rescue agents.
- The telephone numbers of 125, 110, 115 and 112 can be good guides.
- Do initial help and measures for victims until the arrival of relief and emergency forces.
- Don’t remove the injured from the car before stabilizing his/her situation, immobilizing the neck and damaged organs and control of bleeding unless there is the possibility of an explosion and environmental risks.
- Learn how to exit the injured from a car and apply them at the time of an accident.
- If the steering wheels dips into the body, release the catch and pull the seat back in order to remove the injured from the car.