What to do before, during and after flood
Heavy rain and rapid melting of snow are the main causes of flooding. Flood occurs when river channel or natural course of water flow cannot tolerate the capacity of flooding. Factors contributing to this situation include: heavy rains, rapid melting of snow, high slope, destruction of dams, storm and infiltration of water to the beach and human intervention in nature such as destruction of forests and grasslands etc.
There are two varieties of floods: slow floods which are gradually created over days and weeks due to rainfall and sudden increase of water volume in rivers and lakes, and flash floods which occur due to sudden increase in volume of water in rivers and lakes and followed by death and injury to people and damage to homes.
Actions before flood
- Strictly avoid building a house around the river.
- Save water in safe containers for the time of flood.
- Prepare some canned food.
- Prepare lighting devices (flashlights, candles, etc.).
- Put your documents and papers in a waterproof and safe box.
- Put the heater or electrical applicants that are exposed to flood somewhere above the projected flood level.
- To prevent flood water and sewage back up into the house through drainage channels, built the sewage control valves.
- If you live in a place where you are constantly faced with threat of flooding, use appropriate materials to make your building resistant against flood and waterproof the basement walls with insulation cover in order to prevent water entering your house and avoid later damages.
- Buy home insurance against accidents.
Actions during flood
- To understand the situation and get the necessary advice, listen to radio, television or announcements through loudspeaker. If an evacuation order was issued, do so as directed.
- Once you recognized the flood is emerging, act quickly to save yourself. You have only a few minutes to do that. Stay away from drains and streams seemingly calm. Remember streams, drainage channels, straits, etc. might suddenly be flooded.
- If your home is in a high place and the risk of flooding doesn’t threaten you, there is no need to leave the house. Otherwise leave low-lying areas quickly and go to higher area away from rivers and streams.
- If you leave home, take your expensive objects to a higher place and lock the doors.
- Cut off the electricity, water and gas in order to prevent electrocution, explosions, and flooding.
- Don’t walk in water flow because 15 cm of moving water will destroy your balance.
If you have to walk in water, take the route in which the water doesn’t move. To make sure of the strength of the ground beneath your feet, use a piece of stick.
- Don’t drive in a flooded area. If your car is surrounded by flood, leave the car and go to a higher area otherwise you and your car will be flooded quickly.
- Never go around in a flood stricken area alone. If you are walking, don’t move if water is above your knee.
- Never use the trees exposed to flood as a safe place.
- During the flood, don’t pass on the loose wood bridges over the rivers.
- Don’t move in the direction of the flood flow.
- Move vehicles, pets, and portable objects to the nearest elevated area.
Remember the following tips for driving during flood
- In most cars the height water of 15 cm can be reached to the car floor and disrupts its moving and even makes it stop.
- Automobile is not a safe place during the flood. If it stops due to sinking in water or mud, leave it quickly and go to a higher place.
- Water level at 30 cm makes the cars be floated.
- Every car can be floated in 60 cm water moving/moving water.
- At the time of rising water, avoid stopping seriously.
- Avoid moving domestic animals across the rivers or beaches during flood.
- While driving, be careful about steeps of the road. Drive in heavy gear because at this time the brakes don’t work well in the water.
Actions after flood
- Get yourself to the nearest Red Crescent or other relief centers. Food, clothes and other first aid are available there.
- Listen to local news report to ensure the safe drinking water. Boil water before use.
- Get away from floods because the water may be polluted/contaminated by oil, gasoline or sewage. Furthermore, water may have been charged in contact with underground electric power lines.
- Get away from the water flowing/moving.
- Notice the areas in which flooding have receded. So due to the floods, the strength of streets and roads may be poor. In this case they may go down because of/due to the weight of vehicle.
- Stay away from the power lines.
- Return home when the officials announced a safe situation.
- Stay away from the buildings surrounded by water/flood.
- Be quite cautious when entering the house because the foundation of building may be damaged. However it may not be initially seen/appear and the appearance of building may seem healthy.
- Try to go home during the day in order not to need the light fixtures.
- If you have to return home at night, be careful/ cautious. Don’t use the lanterns, torches and matches to light the building. Turn on the flashlight before entering the house.
- Use canned foods.
- Control and dry electronic appliances before use.
- Collected water to the ditches will create favorable condition for the growth of insects specially mosquitoes. So use lace at your accommodation, wear long sleeved shirt and boots.
- Since floods cause snakes out of their nests, be careful about the snakebite after the flood.
- After the flood, there is the risk of infectious diseases such as gastric tract infections including Hepatitis, Cholera and Typhoid fever. So care should be taken to individual and public health.
- If the toilet tank, toilet bowel, refinery and some other facilities are damaged, if possible, repair/fix them. Drainage systems, in case of damage, hurt people’s health.
- Clean and disinfect anything wet because the mud left from the floods contains chemicals and wastewater.