(Necessary measures for prevention and first aid).
Rises in air temperature and excessive heat disrupt body heat exchange with the surrounding environment. When a person is exposed to heat and sun light for a long time or when (s)he does too much physical activity regardless of her(his) age or physical condition, heatstroke occurs. Elderly, children, people who are sick or overweight are sooner exhausted if they are exposed to intense heat.
Stable weather condition can lead to rises in body temperature and heat-induced injuries. People in urban areas are, however, much more susceptible to the consequences of this weather condition since asphalt and concrete (betone) store heat for a long time that leads to gradual warming of the air at night. This phenomenon, that is, the generation of heat at night that leads to an increase in air temperature is known as island effect of urban heat.
Necessary measures to prevent undesirable effects of intense heat
- Make the windows double-glazed in very hot weather condition. Also check ventilation ducts to ensure proper insulation.
- Use reflectors like aluminum foil for windows temporarily, in order for the heat and light to be reflected back out.
- Prevent the outflow of cool air by installing automatic doors and good protection.
- Cover the windows with curtain or sunshade when the sun is shining in the morning or in the afternoon. If you install sunshade on the door, you can prevent up to 80% of the sunlight and hot air from entering into your home.
- Stay at home, as far as possible, in order not to be exposed to sun.
- If a cooler or ventilation is not accessible, stay on lower floors or away from the sun rays.
- Stay at home during the hottest hours, however if you are out, pass your time in public places like library, university, school, theater, shopping malls and the like.
- Do not use salt tablets, unless prescribed by your doctor.
- Drink plenty of water. Those who are epileptic or suffer from diseases of the heart, kidney or liver should limit the amount of fluids they drink. And if you have a problem concerning accumulation of fluid in your body, consult your physician before increasing drinking of liquids.
- Wear loose, comfortable, light-weight and light-colored clothes to cover a greater portion of the surface of your skin and body.
- Wear a cap to protect your face and head.
- Don’t leave your children alone in a locked car.
- Avoid doing activity and hard work in a hot weather, and if you work continuously in hot weather, use cooling devices and drink ORS solution.
Urgent measures after the emergency situation caused by hot weather.
|First aid||Signs||Patient’s condition|
|After sunburn, you must cool the place|
by a wet cloth and then cover it by a moisturizer.
In cases of severe sunburn which leads to inflammation and blister, see your doctor.
|Painful and red skin along with swelling, blisters, fever and headache.||Sunburn|
|Move the injured person to a cool place, massage his/her muscle gently in order for the cramps to go and the muscle be released. Avoid drinking caffeinated liquids. Give ORS solution to patient or (¼ teaspoon salt dissolved in water).|
|Painful contraction of muscles usually in leg and abdominal area and excessive sweating.||Cramps caused by hot weather|
|Lay the injured on his/her back. Remove|
extra clothes from his/her body. Turn on the cooling system. Give the injured water if
she/he is alert.
If it doesn’t work, give him/her ORS solution.
Wet her/his skin with cool water. Keep the legs (18-20 centimeters) above His/her body. Take the injured to a medical centre if there is no improvement in 30 minutes.
|There is excessive sweating, however the skin may be cool, pale or bloodshot. His/her pulse is weak, maybe body temperature is normal, but it may go up. It is possible for the injured to have weakness and confusion, nausea, feeling of dizziness, fatigue and headache.||Heat exhaustion|
|Call 115 or take the injured quickly to the hospital. A delay in transmission may lead to death. During this period, You can take s/he to a cool place and remove the clothes. Keep his/her head and shoulders above. Lower the body temperature using a wet cloth or sponge. Be careful about his/her breathing and use cooling systems.||If the body temperature goes higher than 39, the skin will become red, hot and dry and breathing becomes shallow and rapid. The injured may not be sweating unless it is followed by a strenuous activity. Furthermore the patient may lose his/her conscious.||Heatstroke|